Their range limit is west of Bornholm, meaning that they are absent from the vast majority of the Baltic Sea. During the Crimean War, a joint British and French fleet attacked the Russian fortresses in the Baltic; the case is also known as the Åland War. Older, wood-based shipwrecks such as the Vasa tend to remain well-preserved, as the Baltic's cold and brackish water does not suit the shipworm.  The Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö; it is used by the Øresund Bridge, including the Drogden Tunnel.  Drinking the surface water of the Baltic as a means of survival would actually hydrate the body instead of dehydrating, as is the case with ocean water. In the 13th to 16th centuries, the strongest economic force in Northern Europe was the Hanseatic League, a federation of merchant cities around the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. The general circulation is anti-clockwise: northwards along its eastern boundary, and south along with the western one .. There are several cargo and passenger ferries that operate on the Baltic Sea, such as Scandlines, Silja Line, Polferries, the Viking Line, Tallink, and Superfast Ferries. The Baltic states on the eastern shore were annexed by the Soviet Union. About 20% of the land is used for agriculture and pasture, mainly in Poland and around the edge of the Baltic Proper, in Germany, Denmark, and Sweden. However, in the famine year of 1867 remnants of ice were observed as late as 17 July near Uddskär. Retrouvez ci-dessous les moyennes de température relevées en août dans les différents pays côtiers de la mer Baltique.  Frequently, parts of the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland are frozen, in addition to coastal fringes in more southerly locations such as the Gulf of Riga. "Structural Change in the Dutch Trade in the Baltic in the Eighteenth Century". The largest shipyards are at Gdańsk, Gdynia, and Szczecin, Poland; Kiel, Germany; Karlskrona and Malmö, Sweden; Rauma, Turku, and Helsinki, Finland; Riga, Ventspils, and Liepāja, Latvia; Klaipėda, Lithuania; and Saint Petersburg, Russia. The three Danish straits, the Great Belt, the Little Belt and The Sound (Öresund/Øresund), connect the Baltic Sea with the Kattegat and Skagerrak strait in the North Sea. Storm surge floodings are generally taken to occur when the water level is more than one metre above normal. Geological surveys show that before the Pleistocene, instead of the Baltic Sea, there was a wide plain around a great river that paleontologists call the Eridanos. The origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea, very likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. In the period between the 8th and 14th centuries, there was much piracy in the Baltic from the coasts of Pomerania and Prussia, and the Victual Brothers held Gotland. The area of the bloom extended from Germany and Poland to Finland. In recent years, very small, but with increasing rates, fin whales and humpback whales migrate into Baltic sea including mother and calf pair. Ces pays riverains, ainsi que la mer proprement dite, font l'objet, depuis 2009, d'une « stratégie de la Commission européenne en faveur du développement de la région de la mer Baltique »1, incluant un effort de dépollution de la Baltique et un système commun de surveillance maritime. Physical characteristics of the Baltic Sea, its main sub-regions, and the transition zone to the Skagerrak/North Sea area, The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Baltic Sea as follows:. The latest four occurred in 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2014 suggesting a new inter-inflow period of about ten years. Plusieurs pays ont leurs côtes au bord de la mer Baltique, parmi lesquels : la Lettonie et la Pologne. At the bottom of the Arkona Basin (equalling depths greater than 40 m or 130 ft) and Bornholm Basin (depths greater than 80 m or 260 ft) it is typically 1.4–1.8%. Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de avril.. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de avril se situe entre 37°F et 43°F. In Sweden, the sea was then referred to as Mare Nostrum Balticum ("Our Baltic Sea"). The Baltic then separated opposing military blocs: NATO and the Warsaw Pact. Further north the pattern is inverted. The 1974 Convention entered into force on 3 May 1980. Drogden Sill (depth of 7 m (23 ft)) sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill (depth of 18 m (59 ft)), and a limit to the Belt Sea. “Spatial Politics and Fuzzy Regionalism: The Case of the Baltic Sea Area.”, "Status of Biodiversity in the Baltic Sea", The Baltic Sea, Kattegat and Skagerrak – sea areas and draining basins, poster with integral information by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea are well oxygenated and have a rich biology. Of these two seals, only the Baltic ringed seal suffers when there is not adequate ice in the Baltic Sea, as it feeds its young only while on ice.  Some marine species, like the Atlantic cod and European flounder, can survive at relatively low salinities but need higher salinities to breed, which therefore occurs in deeper parts of the Baltic Sea.. In the eighteenth century, Russia and Prussia became the leading powers over the sea. The periphery amounts to about 8,000 km (5,000 mi) of coastline..  However, some consider non-Baltic records to be misidentifications of juvenile lagoon cockles (Cerastoderma glaucum). On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Lindblad, Jan Thomas. The water level is generally far more dependent on the regional wind situation than on tidal effects. The phenomenon is known as post-glacial rebound. The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Sweden, northeast Germany, Poland, Russia and the North and Central European Plain.. The surface area is about 349,644 km2 (134,998 sq mi)  and the volume is about 20,000 km3 (4,800 cu mi). Koningsbrugge, Hans van. According to the 18th-century natural historian William Derham, during the severe winters of 1703 and 1708, the ice cover reached as far as the Danish straits. Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". At the Bornholm Basin, which is located directly east of the island of the same name, the surface temperature typically falls to 0–5 °C (32–41 °F) during the peak of the winter and rises to 15–20 °C (59–68 °F) during the peak of the summer, with an annual average of around 9–10 °C (48–50 °F). Nous relevons la température de l'eau quotidiennement dans ces pays et nous l'archivons afin de pouvoir calculer les moyennes mensuelles, notamment celles du mois de août. More than 250 streams drain a basin of about 1,600,000 km2 (620,000 sq mi), contributing a volume of 660 km3 (160 cu mi) per year to the Baltic. In 2011, the Gulf of Finland was completely frozen on 15 February.. Tielhof, Milja van. Level ice, ice sludge, pancake ice, and rafter ice form in the more open regions. The remaining non-EU shore areas are Russian: the Saint Petersburg area and the Kaliningrad Oblast exclave.  A similar pattern can be seen in the Gotland Basin, which is located between the island of Gotland and Latvia. , Historic flood events were the All Saints' Flood of 1304 and other floods in the years 1320, 1449, 1625, 1694, 1784 and 1825. The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish inland seas by area, and occupies a basin (a zungenbecken) formed by glacial erosion during the last few ice ages. ", "Sturmfluten an der deutschen Ostseeküste", "Hydrogeography and oxygen in the deep basins", "The Baltic Sea: Its Past, Present and Future", "Land Use and Population Density in the Baltic Sea Drainage Basin: A GIS Database", "UFO at the Bottom of the Baltic Sea? The highest was the flood of 1872 when the water was an average of 2.43 m (8 ft 0 in) above sea level at Warnemünde and a maximum of 2.83 m (9 ft 3 in) above sea level in Warnemünde. In the Bothnian Bay, roughly two-thirds of the species are freshwater. Eventually, it was Sweden that virtually encompassed the Baltic Sea. These have caused numerous shipwrecks, and contributed to the extreme difficulties of rescuing passengers of the ferry M/S Estonia en route from Tallinn, Estonia, to Stockholm, Sweden, in September 1994, which claimed the lives of 852 people. Other settlers were from the Netherlands, Denmark, and Scotland. The gleaming expanse of ice is similar to the Arctic, with wind-driven pack ice and ridges up to 15 m (49 ft). Approximately 100,000 km2 (38,610 sq mi) of the Baltic's seafloor (a quarter of its total area) is a variable dead zone. The Gulf of Finland connects the Baltic Sea with Saint Petersburg. Further east and north the salinity at the bottom is consistently lower, being the lowest in Bothnian Bay (depths greater than 120 m or 390 ft) where it is slightly below 0.4%, or only marginally higher than the surface in the same region. La moyenne de saison de la température de l'eau pour le mois de août se situe entre 18.5°C et 19.2°C. After the unification of Germany in 1871, the whole southern coast became German. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. In the south, the Bay of Gdańsk lies east of the Hel Peninsula on the Polish coast and west of the Sambia Peninsula in Kaliningrad Oblast. The land is still emerging isostatically from its depressed state, which was caused by the weight of ice during the last glaciation. The "Baltic Sea anomaly" refers to interpretations of an indistinct sonar image taken by Swedish salvage divers on the floor of the northern Baltic Sea in June 2011. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, and Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea (Mare Balticum) was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen. Accédez également aux prévisions météo marine (météo des plages) et aux horaires des marées pour les 7 prochains jours, pour chaque destination. The highest surface salinities, generally 0.7–0.9%, are in the southwesternmost part of the Baltic, in the Arkona and Bornholm basins (the former located roughly between southeast Zealand and Bornholm, and the latter directly east of Bornholm).  This border status restricted trade and travel. In the light of political changes and developments in international environmental and maritime law, a new convention was signed in 1992 by all the states bordering on the Baltic Sea, and the European Community. After 1945, the German population was expelled from all areas east of the Oder-Neisse line, making room for new Polish and Russian settlement. Vous pouvez ainsi aisément choisir une destination de vacances où se baigner sera agréable ou savoir quand est le bon moment pour aller à la plage ! The Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea-Baltic Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. The Bay of Pomerania lies north of the islands of Usedom and Wolin, east of Rügen. La température de la mer la plus basse relevée ce mois-ci est de 16.7°C et la plus haute est de 21.3°C.  From 1872, there exist regular and reliable records of water levels in the Baltic Sea. The ratification instruments were deposited by the European Community, Germany, Latvia and Sweden in 1994, by Estonia and Finland in 1995, by Denmark in 1996, by Lithuania in 1997, and by Poland and Russia in November 1999.  Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been originally associated with colors found in swamps (compare Proto-Slavic *bolto "swamp").
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